HANS BELLMER, *1902 Kattowitz, PL; †1975 Paris, FR

Hans Bellmer was born on 13 March 1902 in Kattowitz, Germany. After receiving his baccalauréat in 1921, he left for Kassel to work in a coal mine. Whilst there, he came in contact with the writings of Lenin and Marx; read Zola, Flaubert, Baudelaire, Poe and Wilde; and became familiar with Berlin Dada, discovering the works of Ernst, Arp, Grosz, Dix, Tzara and Klee. This was a formative period, where he would develop a revolutionary and provocative spirit that would define him for the rest of his life. Between 1922 and 1924, his father enrolled him in the Berlin Technische Hochschule to study engineering.

Bellmer acquainted himself with Grosz and Heartfield in Berlin, the former commenting on his drawing ability. In 1924, he began working as a typographer and bookbinder for Malik-Verlag before opening a small advertising firm in Karlshorst, a suburb of Berlin, which he would continue to run until 1934. Bellmer would also work as an illustrator during this period and married Margarete Schnell in 1928. With Hitler coming to power in 1933, Bellmer decided to cease all utilitarian work as a show of defiance. Thus, along with his brother Fritz, an engineer, Margarete and his cousin, Ursula, began working upon a large mechanical doll made of wood, plaster, glue, metal rods, nuts and bolts, called ‘Doll’ (‘Puppe’/‘Poupée’). Bellmer took a number of photographs of the Doll in various poses and stages of construction, ten of which were published with an accompanying text, Die Puppe, in 1934. Eighteen were also published in the Surrealist review, Minotaure (no. 6, Winter 1934). Bellmer would make a second doll in 1935, which he also photographed in various states of dismemberment.

In 1938, Bellmer fled to Paris from Germany, where the disquieting and sexualised nature of his work was welcomed by André Breton and the Surrealists. Paul Eluard would choose fourteen colour photographs of the second Doll and write accompanying poems in prose to be published in Christian Zervos’ Cahiers d’art. In 1939, Bellmer took up painting again, and also produced collages, drawings and gouaches on paper as well as experimenting with automatist techniques such as frottage. After the Second World War, Bellmer remained in Paris. Though he would give up doll-making, he continued to create erotic drawings, etchings, sexually explicit photographs, paintings, and prints of pubescent girls. In 1954, Bellmer met the author and artist Unica Zürn, who became his companion until her suicide in 1970. Bellmer exhibited sporadically throughout his life but was the subject of a travelling solo exhibition, Hans Bellmer: Zeichnungen und Graphik in his native Germany in 1967 (Hanover, Berlin, Munich), and at the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam in 1970. In 1974, Sidney Janis Gallery held a a solo exhibition of his work in New York. Bellmer died on 24 February 1975.

Bellmer’s work can be found in the following selected international collections: the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York; the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Art Institute of Chicago; National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.; the Menil Collection, Houston; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMoMA); Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA); the Tate Collection, London.

, *1703, Paris, FR; † 1770 Paris, FR

François Boucher was a member of an extraordinarily talented generation of artists born around 1700 who would dominate French painting for much of the eighteenth century. Heir to the grand manner of seventeenth-century art, Boucher nevertheless created a style and repertory of subject matter that was perfectly compatible with the intimate scale and refined taste of the court of Louis XV (r. 1715–1774) and his maitresse en titre, the marquise de Pompadour (1721–1764). Lavishly patronized and showered with academic honors throughout his career, Boucher came under harsh criticism later in his life, when his ebullient rococo style was attacked as decorative and his gallant iconography condemned as trivial.

A native of Paris, Boucher learned the rudiments of painting from his father, Nicolas (1672–1743), a member of the Académie de Saint-Luc. In the early 1720s he studied for a short time with François Lemoyne (1688–1737), one of the leading historical painters of the day, who would later be appointed First Painter to the King. According to Boucher, this experience did not have a great effect on his art, even if several early paintings bear the influence of Lemoyne (for example, The Surprise, c. 1723–1725, New Orleans Museum of Art).

Boucher won the Grand Prix in 1723, but there was no room for him at the French Academy in Rome, so his trip to Italy was delayed several years. He spent the intervening period painting (he exhibited several works at the annual Exposition de la Jeunesse in the Place Dauphine in 1725) and printmaking, which he learned while living in the household of the engraver Jean François Cars (1661–1730). This experience led him to the print publisher Jean de Jullienne (1686–1766), for whom he produced numerous etchings for the Recueil Jullienne, a multivolume compendium of prints after compositions by Antoine Watteau (French, 1684 - 1721). As a result, Boucher gained what amounted to a second education as he immersed himself in the visual language and imagery of the great master of the fête galante. He finally traveled to Italy in 1728 at his own expense, although next to nothing is known about his activities there or whether the trip had any effect on his art. He was back in Paris by 1731. That same year he was admitted as a history painter into the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, gaining full membership three years later with Rinaldo and Armida (Paris, Musée du Louvre), a painting that still demonstrates the influence of Lemoyne.

From these auspicious beginnings followed an exceptionally successful career, as Boucher won a succession of important commissions from the French Crown and aristocracy. For Louis XV he produced many painted decorations for royal châteaus at Versailles, Bellevue, Choisy, and Fontainebleau while also participating in the decoration of aristocratic residences in Paris, such as the Hôtel de Soubise. Among his most innovative works were two pictures of exotic hunts, La Chasse au Tigre and La Chasse au Crocodile, painted for the king’s private apartments at Versailles and now in the Musée de Picardie, Amiens. His prodigious oeuvre and the many engravings made after his works soon earned him an international reputation. With Charles Joseph Natoire (French, 1700 - 1777) and Carle Van Loo (French, 1705 - 1765) he was one of the principal exponents of the rococo, the ornate, colorful style of art associated with the reign of Louis XV. A tireless draftsman, Boucher made lyrical and often brilliant drawings that were widely collected, then as now, and disseminated through prints by such artists as Gilles Demarteau (1722–1776), who perfected a “crayon-manner” engraving technique that reproduced the soft textures of colored chalk.

Boucher is perhaps best known for his many mythological paintings, such as Diana at the Bath of 1742 (Paris, Musée du Louvre), and pastoral subjects, such as Pensent-ils au Raisin of 1749 (London, Wallace Collection). Generally idealized and lighthearted depictions of rustic life, these pastorals sometimes drew their imagery from the theater, such as the comic operas of Charles Simon Favart (1710–1792) and Jean Monnet (1703–1785), for whom Boucher designed stage sets in the 1740s and 1750s. A diverse artist, Boucher also produced religious paintings, some of them innovative, such as his devotional picture La Lumière du monde of 1750 (Lyon, Musée des Beaux-Arts), painted for Madame de Pompadour’s private chapel at Bellevue; genre scenes (his Le Déjeuner of 1739 in the Musée du Louvre is one of his highest achievements in the category of the tableau de mode); landscapes; and portraits. This latter category, encountered infrequently in his oeuvre, nevertheless includes one of his greatest masterpieces, the monumental Portrait of Madame de Pompadour of 1756 (Munich, Alte Pinakothek).

In addition to his many painted decorations and cabinet pictures, Boucher contributed designs for the Beauvais and Gobelins tapestry works, the Sèvres porcelain factory, and stage sets and costumes for the theater. He also produced numerous chinoiseries, fanciful and exotic images of the Far East (such as the oil sketches, now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Besançon, used as tapestry designs).[5] He was the favorite artist of Madame de Pompadour, for whom he painted some of his most impressive works, including The Rising of the Sun and The Setting of the Sun of 1753 (London, Wallace Collection), large canvases that were made as tapestry cartoons for Beauvais. Boucher’s flourishing studio was the training ground for many young artists, the greatest of whom, Jean Honoré Fragonard (French, 1732 - 1806), would surpass his master in invention and ingenuity if not in public renown. During the 1750s and 1760s Boucher’s increasingly saccharine style and repetitive compositions came under attack from anti-rococo critics such as Etienne La Font de Saint-Yenne (1688–1771) and Denis Diderot (French, 1713 - 1784), who saw Boucher’s lighthearted subject matter and fluid, coloristic style as frivolous and morally corrupt. Yet Boucher, in defiance of an increasing demand from theorists, critics, and public agitators, continued to exhibit his cheerful and sugary visions of pastoral bliss and mythological trysts at the biennial Salons. Indeed, his social connections and efficient careerism resulted in his appointment in 1765 as First Painter to the King and his election as director of the Académie royale. This final triumph was short lived, however, as Boucher died in Paris in 1770.

, *1990, DE
Lives and works in Vienna, AT

2011-2019 University of Applied Arts Vienna (with Henning Bohl), AT
2014-2015 Tokyo University of the Arts (with O-jun), JP

2022 Lunatique, Crèvecoeur, Paris, FR; 2021 Quince Moon, Croy Nielsen, Vienna, AT; 2020 Lotosesser, 15Orient, New York, NY, US; 2019 Diploma, University for applied arts Vienna, AT; 2018 Spiteful chuckle, White dwarf, Vienna, AT.

2023 Cadavre Exquis or the Voluptuous Decay of the Shivering Veil, curated by Stanislava Kolvačíková, Braunsfelder, Cologne, DE; 2023 Shibunkaku’s Saga House, Kyoto, JP; 2023 L’Almanach 23, Le Consortium, Dijon, FR; 2022 Blumen in Vasen, Kunsthaus Glarus, Glarus, CH; 2022 Another Surrealism, Den Frie Centre of Contemporary Art, Copenhagen, DK; 2021 and I will wear you in my heart of heart, The Flag Art Foundation, New York, NY, US; 2020 (nothing but) Flowers, Karma, New York, NY, US; 2021 Sinkhole Project, by Joe Speier, curated by Julius Pristauz, AT; 2019 We need more than one term for these big things, Heiligenkreuzigerhof, Vienna, AT; 2019 Daisy chain, A.D. Gallery, New York, NY, US; 2019 Comfortable hole bye, 4649, Tokyo, JP; 2019 Observatory parking (2016), COW, Los Angeles, CA, US; 2018 HARSH ASTRAL: The Radiants 2, Green Tea Gallery at Francesca Pia, Zuerich, CH; 2018 Die Welt retten, Heiligenkreuzerhof, Vienna, AT; 2018 Es, ich, über ich, Rua do sol, Porto, PT; 2017 Madame, Justice, Vienna, AT.

Lives and works in Düsseldorf, DE

Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, DE (with Tomma Abts and Peter Doig)

2024 A Lover’s Discourse, curated by Stella Bottai, Aspen Art Museum, Colorado, US (upcoming); 2023 Psychroluta, Capri, Düsseldorf, DE; 2023 First Rays of the New Sun, Antenna Space, Shanghai, CN; 2022 Grotto, Museum of Contemporary Art – Belvedere 21, Vienna, AT; 2022 am I dead yet, Peres Projects, Berlin, DE; 2022 Duftmarken oder die Unfähigkeit sich mitzuteilen, sonneundsolche, Düsseldorf, DE; 2021 Imaga, 15orient, New York, US; 2020 Eastern Promises, Open Forum, Berlin, DE; 2020 Cautionary tales, Mamoth, London, UK; 2019 Turn on inside, Ten Haaf Projects, Amsterdam, NL.

2023 Cadavre Exquis or the voluptuous decay of the shivering veil, Braunsfelder, Cologne, DE; 2023 Horizions: Is there anybody out there?, curated by Robin Peckham, Antenna Space, Shanghai, CN; 2023 Hardcore, Sadie Coles HQ, London, UK; 2023 Landschaft, Galerie Khoshbakht, Cologne, DE; 2022 Interior, curated by Andrew Bonacina, Michael Werner Gallery, London, UK; 2022 Dark Light, Realism in the Age of Post Truth, Aïshti Foundaton, Beirut, LB; 2021 Do Nothing, Feel Everything, Kunsthalle Wien, Vienna, AT; 2020 Queer, queer Kasimir, Saska Kepa Salon, Warsaw, PL; 2020 If on a Winter’s Night a Traveller, MAMOTH, London, UK; 2020 On the politics of delicacy, Capitain Petzel, Berlin, DE; 2019 Gubbinal, Project Native Informant, London, UK; 2019 Painting also known as blood, Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw, PL.

Lives and works in Vienna, AT
Co-founder of XYZcollective, Tokyo, JP

2005 Tama Art University, Tokyo, JP
2014 – 2016 Akademie der bildenden Künste, Vienna, AT

2024 TBC, 49 Nord 6 Est – Founds regional d’art contemporain de Lorraine, Metz, FR (upcoming); 2023 Soshiro Matsubara and Joanna Woś, Croy Nielsen (temporary space), Berlin, DE; 2023 A Lover’s Discourse (with Ulala Imai), Aspen Art Museum, Aspen, CO, US; 2022 Lonesome Diamonds, Martina Simeti, Milan Golden Sorrow, Union Pacific, London, UK; Study for a Labyrinth, Bel Ami, Los Angeles, CA, US; 2021 Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique and etc. / Étude, Fern Residency, Brussels, BE; 2021 Caresses, MACRO, Museum of Contemporary Art, Rome, IT; 2020 True Romance, Croy Nielsen, Vienna, AT; 2020 Haus der Matsubara, Brennan & Griffen, New York, NY, US; 2019 DUO (with Naoki Sutter-Shudo), XYZ collective, Tokyo, JP; 2019 Kiki’s Buh Bye (with Tanja Nis-Hansen), SORT, Vienna, AT; 2019 Autumn Sale of Dreams and Love, Haus der Matsubara feat. Kazuna Taguchi, Significant Other, Vienna, AT; 2019 Okey Dokey III: Fenster, Max Mayer, Düsseldorf, DE; 2018 Engagement, Tolerance and Hospitality, Croy Nielsen, Vienna, AT; 2018 Lovesick, Schiefe Zähne, Berlin, DE; 2017 Sleeves of Desire II, Brennan & Griffen, New York, NY, US; 2016 there's hell in hello but more in goodbye (with Tatjana Danneberg), LambdaLambdaLambda at Galeria Dawid Radziszewski, Warsaw, PL; 2016 Sleeves of Desire, XYZcollective, Tokyo, JP; 2016  Paramount Ranch 3, XYZcollective, Los Angeles, CA, US; 2013 Awake or Asleep, sprout curation, Tokyo, JP; 2010 Confidence, Casaasia, Barcelona, SP; 2008 Missing Mass III, space 23 G, Tokyo, JP; 2007 Missing Mass II, hiromiyoshii, Tokyo, JP; 2007 Missing Mass, hiromiyoshii, Tokyo, JP 2005 Soshiro Matsubara, hiromiyoshii, Tokyo, JP.

2023 Cadavre Exquis Or The Voluptuous Decay Of The Shivering Veil, curated by Stanislava Kovačíková, Braunsfelder, Cologne, DE; 2023 Bruno Pélassy and The Order of The Starfish, Haus am Waldsee, Berlin, DE; 2023 Malediction and Prayer, Modern Art, London, UK; 2023 Papertrail, Matthew Brown, Los Angeles, CA, US; Day by Day, Good Day, curated by Ted Targett, Union Pacific, London, UK; 2023 Cupid’s Bow (curated by Milano Chow), Bel Ami, Los Angeles, CA, US; 2022 Another Surrealism, Den Frie, Copenhagen, DK; 2022 What is it Like to be Bat?, ADZ, Lisbon, PT;  2022 Bread and Digestifs, Callirrhoë, Athens, GR; 2021 Sweet Home, Rachel Uffner Gallery, New York, NY, US; 2021Von Fliegenfallen und Wiener Freiheit, Universitätsgalerie Heiligenkreuzer Hof, Vienna, AT; 2020 Winterfest, Aspen Art Museum, Aspen, CO, US; 2020 The Sentimental Organization of the World, Crévecœur, Paris, FR; 2020 From the Xmas tree of Lucy Bull, organized with Naoki Sutter Shudo, The Desk of Lucy Bull, Los Angeles CA, US; 2019 Is there something I should know, Vinifero, Vienna, AT; 2019 Form and Volume, Cristina Guerra, Lisbon, PT; 2019 You are in my Veins, Kvindemuseet / Kunsthalle Aarhus, DK; 2018 Drawings, 650mAh, Hove, UK; 2018 Fabric Faces, Powder Phrases, Althuis Hofland Fine Arts, Amsterdam, NL; 2018 Münster Sculpture Project in Sagamihara, Kanuma Park, Kanagawa, JP; 2018 Happy Mind Natural High, MISAKO & ROSEN, Tokyo, JP; 2018 Kiss in Tears, XYZCollective at Freedman Fitzpatrick, Los Angeles, CA, US; 2018 Let’s See Action, Curated by MISAKO & ROSEN, Pollock Gallery, Dallas, TX, US; 2018 Vergänglichkeit, privat, mit Kätzchen, Dependance für Zeitgenössischer Kunst, Vienna Carved and Shaped by Proximity, pina, Vienna, AT; 2017 Post-Formalist Painting, statements, Tokyo, JP; 2017 Madame, Justice, Vienna, AT; 2017 Apropos l’Hiver, Bel Ami, Los Angele, CA, US; 2017 By the lakeside : organized by Yui Yaegashi, Shane Campbell Gallery, Chicago, IL, US; 2017 SAYONARA Jupiter, Curated by MISAKO & ROSEN together with XYZcollective, 356mission, Los Anegles, CA, US; 2017 sylvanian families biennale 2017, XYZcollective, Tokyo, JP; 2016 Commodus Operandi, Andrew Rafacz Gallery, Chicago, IL, US; 2016 Stealing Eyes (Imprisoned, Jailbreak, Imprisoned, Jailbreak), cupsule, Tokyo, JP; 2016 there’s hell in hello but more in goodbye, LambdaLambdaLambda at Galeria Dawid Radziszewski, Warsaw, PL; 2015 I’m sorry please talk more slowly, Hikarie, Tokyo, JP; 2014 PLUGGS, Karma International, Zürich, CH; 2014 XYZcollective at Brennan & Griffen – Man & Play, Brennan & Griffen, New York, NY, US; 2014 The Way of PAINTING, Tokyo Opera City Art Gallery, Tokyo, JP; 2013 Blue Valentine, XYZcollective, Tokyo, JP; 2013 19516 kilometers from Milwaukee or 12126 miles, MISAKO & ROSEN, Tokyo, JP; 2013 Imprisoned, Jailbreak, XYZcollective, Tokyo, JP; 2012 GIVEN / LOST, SPROUT Curation, Tokyo, JP; 2011 Cross counter, XYZcollective and capsule, Tokyo, JP; 2011 Non-dejavu humming, Gell Alterna, Tokyo, JP; 2011 FAMILY AFFAIR, curated by Soshiro Matsbara, XYZcollective, Tokyo, JP; 2011REISSUED WOMEN, SPROUT Curation, Tokyo, JP; 2011 The Adventure of Alter-Japan: Zen and Psychedelic, SPROUT Curation, Tokyo, JP; 2011 Good Night MIHOKANNO, akibatamabi, Tokyo, JP; 2010 Melon float and shop, Château 2F, Tokyo, JP; 2010 Tokyo Story, Tokyo, JP; 2010 Wonder Site, Tokyo, JP; 2009 Hello! MIHOKANNO, Tokyo Wonder Site Shibuya, Tokyo, JP; 2009 Imaginary Museum of O collection-Alternative (Post) Modern, Tokyo Wonder Site, Tokyo, JP; 2008 FAXINATION, LOYAL, Stockholm, SE; 2008 Virshaba through Mithuna, curated by Soshiro Matsubara, hiromiyoshii, Tokyo, JP; 2006 AFTER THE REALITY, curated by hiromiyoshii, Deitch Projects, New York, NY, US; 2005 Gallery Artist Show, hiromiyoshii, Tokyo, JP; 2005 Zone-Poetic Moment, Tokyo Wonder Site, Tokyo, JP; 2004 Art@Agnes, The Agnes Hotel And Apartments Tokyo, JP; 2004 AFTER THE REALITY, hiromiyoshii, Tokyo, JP.

2021 Sweet Memories, #Audio, Museum of Contemprary Art of Rome, Rome, IT; 2019 Sweet Memories, Soshiro Matsubara + kenji ide, XYZcollectice, Tokyo, JP; Song of o and ∆ by Toru Takemitsu, Soshiro Matsubara + kenji ide, Guimarães, Vienna, AT; 2018; Song of o and ∆ by Toru Takemitsu, Soshiro Matsubara + kenji ide, Bel Ami, Los Angeles, CA, US; 2018 ; Song of o and ∆ by Toru Takemitsu, Soshiro Matsubara + kenji ide, LambdaLambdaLambda, Pristina, Kosovo.

RICHARD OELZE * 1900 Magdeburg, DE; † 1980 Hameln, DE
He was a German painter. He is classified as a surrealist.

He was born in Magdeburg. As of 1914, Oelze attended the School of Decorative Arts in Magdeburg, where he was trained as a lithographer until 1918. He learned nude drawing in evening classes. Among his teachers there were Richard Winkel and Kurt Tuch, as of 1918. From 1919 until 1921, he completed his studies at the same school as a Stipendiat (a person receiving a scholarship). Between 1921 and 1925, he was a student at the Bauhaus, at first in Weimar with Johannes Itten, and then in Dessau, where he received a special teaching post at the Bauhaus. From 1926 until 1929, he lived in Dresden, and participated in an exhibition of the "Dredner Secession" there in 1929. He lived in Ascona in Switzerland from 1929 through 1930, and then in Berlin until 1932.
After a longer residence on Lake Garde, he stayed in Paris in the years from 1932 to 1936 and became acquainted with André Breton, Salvador Dalí, Paul Éluard and Max Ernst. During this time he also met Mina Loy, who was then working as a gallery representative for the Julien Levy Gallery (New York), whose posthumously published surrealist novel Insel depicts Oelze as the titular character. In 1936 his painting Tägliche Sorge and a drawing were included in the exhibition Fantastic Art, Surrealism and Dada at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. During 1936–1937, he again lived in Switzerland and in Italy. In 1938, he moved to Germany, where he settled in the artists' colony in Worpswede in 1939. From 1941 through 1945, he performed military service and was taken prisoner. After the war, he again went to Worpswede, where he worked until 1962, and then moved to Gut Posteholz near Hameln.
Oelze participated in documenta II in 1959 and in documenta III in 1964 in Kassel. In 1965, he became a member of the Academa of Arts, Berlin.
He died in Gut Posteholz on November 26, 1980.

Most important work may well be Die Erwartung (The Expectation, 1935/1936), which depicts a group of people staring into an empty landscape with their backs to the observer. This picture is judged to be a fundamental picture in the history of painting. However, he had already had great success with exhibitions in Amsterdam, London, Paris and New York.Oelze was regarded as one of the most important painters of surrealism. His works are typified by a secretive representation of landscape and figural compositions, with rendition of details in the manner of the old masters.Oelze had an important influence on the later French surrealist, Christian d’Orgeix.

Oelze is the winner of the Max-Beckmann-Preis, received the Karl-Ernst-Osthaus-Preis of the city of Hagen, the Großen Kunstpreis (Great Art Prize) of the state of North Rhein Westphalia, the Lichtwark-Preis of the city of Hamburg and was awarded the Niedersachsenpreis in the category of culture in 1980.

FÉLICIEN ROPS,*1833, Namur, BE; † 1898, Corbeil-Essonnes (FR)

Felician Joseph Victor Rops was born in Namur, Belgium on July 7, 1883, the son of a textile manufacturer. At age 20 Felician moved to Brussels, where he attended the Académie de Saint-Luc and began creating satirical lithographs which were published in the student magazine Le Crocodile and he became locally famous as a caricaturist. Rops married in 1857 and had two children, one of which died in childhood. Rops produced a number of etchings as illustrations for childrens books by C. de Coster.

In 1862 he went to Paris where he met the etchers Felix Braquemond and Jules Jacquemart. His activity as a lithographer ceased about 1865, and he became a restless experimenter with etching techniques. Rops met Charles Baudelaire towards the end of the poet's life in 1864, and Baudelaire left an impression upon him that lasted until the end of his days. Rops created the frontispiece for Baudelaire's Les Épaves, a selection of poems from Les Fleurs du mal that had been censored in France, and which therefore were published in Belgium.His association with Baudelaire and with the art he represented won his work the admiration of many other writers, including Théophile Gautier, Alfred de Musset and Stéphane Mallarmé to name a few. He was closely associated with the literary movement of ‘Symbolism and Decadence.’ Rops became best known for his printmaking.

Rops often combined soft-ground etching—a technique practiced by few artists of his day often adding mezzotint or aquatint, and sometimes adding hand-coloring to his plates. His etchings were popular, and influenced many younger artists, including Symbolists such as Edvard Munch and Max Klinger.

With his second wife, Léontine, he had one daughter, Claire, who went on to marry the Belgian author Eugène Demolder. After the failure of this marriage, Rops moved to Paris in 1874 where he lived with two sisters, Aurélie and Léontine Duluc.

Rops was one of the founding members of Société Libre des Beaux-Arts of Brussels (Free Society of Fine Arts, 1868–1876) and Les XX ("The Twenty", formed 1883). Rops's eyesight began to fail in 1892. He kept up his literary associations until his death. Félicien Rops was a freemason and a member of the Grand Orient of Belgium. He died on August 23, 1898 in Essonnes, France

Lives and works in London, UK

2024 Hayward Gallery, London, UK (upcoming); 2023 The Groom, Andréhn-Schiptjenko Paris, Paris, FR; 2022 Sex-Pol, Blum & Poe, Los Angeles, CA, US; 2022 A Dream Between Sleeping and Waking, Charleston, Firle, UK; 2021 Someone Like You, Andréhn-Schiptjenko, Stockholm, SE; 2020 Linderism, curated by Amy Tobin, Kettle’s Yard, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; traveling to Hatton Gallery, Newcastle University, UK; 2019 Ever Standing Apart From Everything, Stuart Shave/Modern Art, London, UK; 2018 Her Grace Land, Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, UK; 2018 The House of Fame, Nottingham Contemporary, Nottingham, UK; 2018 Bower of Bliss, Glasgow Women's Library, Glasgow, UK; 2018 The Bower of Bliss, Art on the Underground, Southwark Station, London, UK; 2017 Andréhn-Schiptjenko, Stockholm, SE; 2015 An Absence, A Presence, A Mood, A Mantle, Dependance, Brussels, BE; 2013 Blum & Poe, Los Angeles, CA, US; 2013 Linder: femme/objet, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FR; traveled to Kestnergesellschaft, Hannover, DE, Hepworth Wakefield, Wakefield, UK; Tate St. Ives, St. Ives, Cornwall, UK; 2012 Goss Michael Foundation, Dallas, TX, US; 2011 Stuart Shave/Modern Art, London, UK; Dependance, Brussels, BE; 2010 King’s Ransom (Hybrid Tea), Sorcha Dallas, Glasgow, UK; 2010 Linder Sterling and Jon Savage: The Secret Public / Punk Montages, Photography and Collages 1976 – 1981, Boo–Hooray, New York, NY, US; 2010 The Darktown Cakewalk, Celebrated House of Fame, The Arches, Glasgow, UK; traveled to Chisenhale Gallery, London, UK; 2008 Linn Lühn, Cologne, DE; 2007 Pretty Girl. No.1, Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art, Gateshead, UK; MoMA PS1, New York, NY, US; Stuart Shave/Modern Art, London, UK; 2006 We Who Are Her Hero, Galerie LH, Paris, FR; 2006 Let Me Go Where My Pictures Go, Dependence, Brussels, BE; 2004 The Lives of Women Dreaming, Futura Gallery, British Council, Prague, CZ; 2000 The Return of Linderland, Cornerhouse, Manchester, UK; 1997 What Did You Do in the Punk War, Mummy?, Cleveland Gallery, London, UK; England is Mine, Windows Gallery, British Council, Prague, CZ.

2023 Cadavre Exquis or the voluptuous decay of the shrivering veil, curated by Stanislava Kovalčíková, Brausfelder, Cologne, DE; 2023 Woman in Revolt! Art and Activism in the UK 1970-1990, Tate, London, UK; 2023 Lost Girls, presented by War Child, Flowers Gallery, London, UK; 2023 LINDER | HANNAH WILKE, Alison Jacques, London, UK; 2022 Sensitive Content, Unit London, London, UK; Punk is Coming, MoCA, Westport, CT, US; 2021 Crocodile Cradle, PEER, London, UK; 2021 The Stomach and the Port, Liverpool Biennial, Liverpool, UK; 2020 Heaven and Hell, curated by Seth Bogart and Jess Scott, The TOM House, Tom of Finland Foundation, Los Angeles, CA, US; 2019 The Lie of the Land, MK Gallery, Milton Keynes, UK; 2019 Too Fast to Live, Too Young to Die: Punk Graphics, 1976-1986, Museum of Arts and Design, New York, NY, US; 2019 A Flower in My Mouth, Salzburger Kunstverein, Salzburg, AT; 2019 Cut and Paste |  400 Years of Collage, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, UK; 2019 The Aerodrome, Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, UK; 2019 Art & Porn, ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum, Aarhus, DK; traveling to Kunsthal Charlottenborg, Copenhagen, DK; 2018 Home Futures, Design Museum, London, UK; 2018 Exploding Collage, Hatton Gallery at Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2018 Virginia Woolf: An Exhibition Inspired by Her Writings, Tate St Ives, Cornwall, UK; traveled to Pallant house Gallery, Chichester, UK; and Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK; 2018 Vêtements Illicites, Freedman Fitzpatrick, Paris, FR; 2017 Dreamers Awake, curated by Susanna Greeves, White Cube Bermondsey, London, UK; The Ends of Collage: New York, Luxembourg & Dayan, New York, NY, US; The Ends of Collage: London, Luxembourg & Dayan, London, UK; La Movida, HOME, Manchester, UK; 2017 As Above, So Below: Portals, Vision, Spirits & Mystics, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin, IE; 2017 Coming Out: Sexuality, Gender and Identity, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, UK; 2017 Daughters of Penelope, Dovecot Studios, Edinburgh, UK; 2017 Queer Art(ists) Now, Archive Gallery, London, UK; 2017 Surreal House, The Pill, Istanbul, TR; 2017 Nude: Art from the Tate Collection, SOMA Museum of Art, Seoul, SR; 2017 The Critic as Artist, curated by Michael Bracewell and Andrew Hunt, Reading Museum, Reading, UK; 2016 Not For Sale, Lovaas Projects, Munich, DE; 2016 Performing for the Camera, Tate Modern, London, UK; 2016 Pure Romance, The Redfern Gallery, London, UK; 2016 Theories of Modern Art, Stuart Shave/Modern Art, London, UK; 2016 Of Other Spaces: Where Does Gesture Become an Event?, Cooper Gallery, Dundee, UK; 2016 Le retour des ténèbres’ /Return of Darkness, Musée Rath in Geneva, CH; 2016 Artistic Differences, Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, UK, 2016 Nude: Art from the Tate collection, The Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, AU; 2016 British Art Show 8, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, UK; 2015 British Art Show 8, Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds, UK; 2015 LINO|CUT, Paul Stolper, London, UK; 2015 Soft Core, Invisible Exports, New York, NY, US; 2014 Primal Architecture, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin, IE; 2014 Post Pop: East Meets West, Saatchi Gallery, London, UK; 2014 Play What’s Not There, Raven Row, London, UK; 2014 The Hawker, Gallery Carlos Ishikawa, London, UK; 2013 Designing Modern Women, 1890s-1990s, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, US; 2013 Europunk: une révolution artistique, Musée de la musique, Paris, FR; 2013 Flowers&Mushrooms, Museum der Moderne Mönchsberg, Salzburg, AT; 2013 The System of Objects, Deste Foundation, Athens, GR; 2013 Tom Burr & Linder, Stuart Shave/Modern Art, London, UK; 2013 Coconut Water, White Flag Projects, Saint Louis, MO, US; 2013 The Age of Collage, Gestalten Space, Berlin, DE; 2013 In The Cut, Australian Centre for Contemporary Art, Southbank, Victoria, AT; 2012 Transmitter/Receiver, Aberystwyth Arts Centre, Aberystwyth, UK; 2012 Only Parts of Us Will Ever Touch Parts of Others, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, FR; 2012 Mash-up: Collage from the 1930’s to the present, L&M Arts, Los Angeles, CA, US; 2011 Transmitter/Receiver: The Persistence of Collage from the Arts Council Collection, MIMA, Middlesbrough, UK; 2011 LIVE! Art & Rock that Changed the History, Centro Per L'arte Contemporanea Luigi Pecci, Prato, IT; 2011 The Paris Sont Ouverts, Freud Museum, London, UK; 2011 Madame Realism, Marres Centre for Contemporary Culture, Maastricht, NL; 2010 Art For Whom?, Tate Britain, London, UK; 2010 Another Music, Kunsthall Oslo, NO; 2010 Room Divider, Wilkinson Gallery, London, UK; 2010 Rencontres d'Arles Photographie, Arles, FR; 2010 The Dark Monarch, Towner Contemporary Art Museum, Eastbourne, UK; 2010 Mixtapes: Popular Music in Contemporary Art, Lewis Glucksman Gallery, Cork, IE; 2010 Misty Boundaries Fades and Dissolves, FormContent, London, UK; 2010 Supernature: an Exercise in Loads, AMP, Athens, GR; 2009 The Dark Monarch, Tate St. Ives, St. Ives, UK; 2009 After Twilight, Kölnischer Kunstverein, Cologne, DE; 2008 Crossroads: DA2, Salamanca Institute of Culture, Salamanca, ES; 2008 Cohabitation, Galleria Francesca Kaufmann, Milan, IT; 2008 Punk. No One Is Innocent, Kunsthalle Vienna, Austria doArt, Beijing, CN; 2007 Re-Make/Re-Model, Sorcha Dallas, Glasgow, UK, 2007 Isabella Bortolozzi, Berlin, DE; 2007 Love Me Tender: Works from the Tate Collection, Tate Britain, London, UK; 2007 Linn Lühn, Cologne, DE; 2007 Harry Smith Anthology Remixed, Alt.Gallery, Newcastle, UK; 2007 Sympathy for the Devil: Art and Rock and Roll since 1967, Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago, IL, US; 2007 What We Do Is Secret, Blancpain Art Contemporain, Geneva, CH; 2007 Panic Attack! Art in the Punk Years, Barbican, London, UK; traveled to the Maison des Arts, Créteil, FR; 2006 Deconstruction, Barbara Gladstone, New York, NY, US; 2006 Audio, Cabinet des Estampes, Geneva, CH;  2006 Le Sphere Punk, Le Magasin, Grenoble, FR; 2006 The Secret Public: The Last Days of the British Underground 1978-1988, Kunstverein Munich, DE; traveled to ICA, London, UK; 2004 Collage, Bloomberg Space, London, UK; 2003 Glamour, Windows Gallery, British Council, Prague, CZ; 2003 Plunder, Dundee Contemporary Arts, Dundee, UK ; 2001 DEAD, The Roundhouse, London, UK; 1998 Destroy: Punk Graphic Design in Britain, Royal Festival Hall, London, UK.

2019 Another Music in a Different Arcadia, Design Museum, London, UK; 2018 The Bower of Bliss, Art on the Underground, London, UK; 2016 Children of the Mantic Stain, Southbank Center, London, UK; 2015 Children of the Mantic Stain, Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds, UK; 2012 The Ultimate Form, The Hepworth Wakefield, Wakefield, UK; 2007 Le Magasin, Grenoble, FR; 2006 The Working Class Goes To Paradise, Tate Triennial, Tate Britain, London, UK; 2004 Meltdown, Royal Festival Hall, London, UK; 2000 The Working Class Goes To Paradise, Manchester, UK.

Lives and works in Vienna, AT

2005 Completed Postgraduate Studies, Tokyo University of the Arts (M.F.A), JP
2008 Conferred a Doctorate for Painting Major, Tokyo University of the Arts (Ph.D), JP
2013-2016 Awarded the Fellowship of Overseas Study Program for Artists by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Japanese Government

2023 Black Paintings, Radio Athènes, Athens, GR; 2022 A Quiet Sun, Ginza Maison Hermès Le Forum, Tokyo, JP; 2021 Due, Ermes-Ermes, Rome, IT; 2019 the eyes of eurydice, void+, Tokyo, JP; 2017 wienfluss, Museum Haus Kasuya, Kanagawa, JP; 2016 you are a mirror, reflecting me, Christophe Guye Galerie, Zürich, CH; 2011 grey, mosaicism, Eslite Gallery, Taipei, CN; 2010 It Is as it is, Gallery 2, Seoul, KR; 2009 It is as it is, ShugoArts, Tokyo, JP; 2009 Half in Gray, void+ Tokyo, JP; 2006 A Photograph Within, TARO NASU GALLERY, Tokyo, JP; 2009 Taguchi Kazuna: Portrait of absence, Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, Hiroshima, JP; 2005 Stars, Gallery KAKU, Tokyo, JP; 2005 Galerija SKC, Beograd, RS and ME; 2005 SAVREMENA Galerija, Zrenjanin, RS and ME; 2005 Galerija ZLATNO OKO, Novi Sad, RS and ME; 2005 TARO NASU GALLERY, Tokyo, JP; 2004 Gallery KAKU, Tokyo, JP; 2004 Still Life, Gendai HEIGHTS GALLERY Den, Tokyo, JP; 2003 Lost Bromide: Tomohiro Nishimura Selection Vol.11, Gallery MAKI, Tokyo, JP.

2023 Cadavre exquis or the voluptuous decay of the shivering veil, curated by Stanislava Kovalčíková, Braunsfelder, Cologne, DE; 2023 Malediction and Prayer, Modern Art, London, UK; 2022 I had a Dog and a Cat, Georg Kargl Fine Arts, Vienna, AT; 2022 Light as Medium, Tokyo Photographic Art Museum, Tokyo, JP; 2021 The Terrorizers, Ermes-Ermes, Rome, IT; 2021 Mythropolis, A.M.180 Gallery, Prague, CZ; 2020 Why do birds suddenly appear?, Galerie Martin Janda, Vienna, AT; 2020 The Unremarkableness of Disobedient Desire, Lucie Drdova Gallery, Prague, CZ; 2019 Autumn Sale of Dreams and Love (with Haus der Matsubara), Significant Other, Vienna, AT; 2015 clk, capsule, Tokyo, JP; 2014 TOKYO2020, Christophe Guye Galerie, Zürich, CH; 2014 Sleeping Beauty, Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, Hiroshima, JP; 2013 THE CRIMSON SUN, ShugoArts, Tokyo, JP; 2012 somewhere between me and this world, Japanese contemporary photography, Tokyo, JP; 2012 Metropolitan Museum of Photography, Tokyo, JP; 2012 Parallel Visions: Japan and Korea Contemporary Photography, Hong Kong Arts Centre, Hong Kong, CN; 2012 Pandemonium, XYZ collective, Tokyo, JP; 2012 recording line of sight, ShugoArts, Tokyo, JP; 2011 simple things, Nagoya Citizens Gallery Yada, Aichi, JP; 2011 YOKOHAMA TRIENNALE–OUR MAGIC HOUR, Yokohama Museum of Art, Kanagawa, JP; 2009 Mr. FREEDOM X, A+, Tokyo, JP; 2009 Re: Membering–Next of Japan, DOOSAN ART CENTER, Alternative Space LOOP, Seoul, KR; 2009 Trace Elements: spirits and memory in Japanese and Australian photomedia, Performance Space, Sydney, AU; 2008 Biennale Cuvee, OK Center for Contemporary Art, Linz, AT; 2008 Faithful Documents: Japanese Contemporary Photography, AKI Gallery, Taipei, CN; 2008 Trace Elements: spirits and memory in Japanese and Australian photomedia, Tokyo Opera City Art Gallery, Tokyo, JP; 2007 Portrait Session, Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, Hiroshima, JP; 2007 VOCA2007: The Vision of Contemporary Art, The Ueno Royal Museum, Tokyo, JP; 2007 The Photograph: What You See & What You Don't, Chinretsukan Gallery of The University Art Museum, Tokyo University of the Arts, Tokyo, JP; 2007 Attempt, Museum Haus Kasuya, Kanagawa, JP; 2006 my cup of tea -Private Luxury, TARO NASU GALLERY, Tokyo, JP; 2006 Rapt! 20 contemporary artists from Japan, organized by the Japan Foundation, Centre for Contemporary Photography, Melbourne and multiple venues in Australia; 2006 Taipei Biennial: Dirty Yog, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, CN; 2005 Chaosmos '05: Unreal Reality, Sakura City Museum of Art, Chiba, JP; 2005 Like a Mysterious Revolving Door: The Interchange between Photography and Painting, Bumpodo Gallery, Tokyo, JP; 2004 Voice of Site: Tokyo-Chicago-New York, Chinretsukan Gallery of The University Art Museum, Tokyo University of the Arts, Tokyo, JP.

2010 The Gotoh Memorial Prize Foundation new comer’s prize of art2008 Nomura Prize2003 Purchased Prize, Graduation Exhibition, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts.

MIROSLAV TICHÝ, *1926 Nětčice, CS; † 2011 in Kyjov, CZ

2019 A Figure Drawn, Robert Heald Gallery, Wellington, NZ; 2017 Photographs 1960–1990, Robert Heald Gallery, Wellington, NZ; 2016 Miroslav Tichy or the Celebration of the Photographic Progress, Museo del Romanticismo, Madrid, ES; 2015 Miroslav Tichy. Drawings & Photographs, Delmes & Zander, Berlin, DE; 2013 Miroslav Tichý: Die Stadt der Frauen, ZEPHYR, Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen Mannheim, DE; 2013 Homage to Miroslav Tichý, Prague Biennale, Prague, CZ; 2012 L'Homme à la Mauvaise Caméra, Pascal Polar Gallery, Brussels, BE; 2012 The Artist with the Bad Camera, Moscow House of Photography, Moscow, RU; 2011 Sun Screen, Horton Gallery, New York, NY, US; 2011 Miroslav Tichý, Retrospettiva, SI Fest, Savignano sul Rubicone, IT; 2011 Miroslav Tichỷ, Braunschweig University of Art, Braunschweig, DE; 2011 Miroslav Tichý, Wilkenson gallery, London, UK; 2011 Les formes du vrai / Forms of Truth, City Gallery Prague, Prague, CZ; 2010 ICP – International Centre of Photography, New York, NY, US; 2009 Miroslav Tichý. Mirography, Ivorypress Art Space, Madrid, ES; 2008 Miroslav Tichý, Museum für moderne Kunst, Frankfurt, DE; 2008 Miroslav Tichý, Centre Pompidou, Paris, FR; 2008 Miroslav Tichý, Kunsthaus Bregenz, KUB Billboards, AT; 2007 Prinzhorn Sammlung, Heidelberg, DE; 2007 Galerie Susanne Zander, Cologne, DE; 2007 Miroslav Tichý, Taka Ishii Gallery, Tokyo, JP; 2007 Miroslav Tichý, Beijing Art Now Gallery, Beijing and Shanghai, CN; 2006 Miroslav Tichý, Brno House of Art, Brno, CZ; 2005 Miroslav Tichý, Kunsthaus Zürich, Zürich, CH.

2023 Cadavre Exquis or the voluptuous decay of the shivering veil, curated by Stanistava Kovačíková, Braunsfelder, Cologne, DE; 2021 PHOTO/BRUT, Collection Bruno Decharme & Compagnie, American Folk Art Museum, New York, NY, US; 2019 Tauchgang, Christian Lethert, Cologne, DE;  2019 PHOTO/BRUT, Collection Bruno Decharme & Compagnie, Les Rencontres d'Arles, Arles, FR; 2019 Extravaganza, curated by Antonia Gaeta, Centro de Arte Oliva, São João da Madeira, PT; 2018 You've got 1243 Unread Messages – Last Generation before the Internet. Latvian National Museum of Art/Latvian Centre for Contemporary Art, Riga, LV; 2017 The Museum of Everything, MONA, Berriedale, Tasmania, AU; 2017 Known/Unknown, Museum of Sex, New York, NY, US; 2016 Der Schatten der Avantgarde. Rousseau und die vergessenen Meister, curated by Kaspar König and Falk Wolf. Museum Folkwang, Essen, DE; 2016 She Might Be (curated by David Ostroswki & Michail Pirgelis), Delmes & Zander, Cologne, DE; 2015 System and Vision, Galerie David Zwirner, New York, NY, US; 2015 Shame, Museum Dr. Guislain, Gent, BE; 2012 Rumeurs/Rumors, MADmusée; Liege, BE; 2011 Het onvermoiebaar epos – Fieret – Tichý – Heyboer, Fotomuseum Den Haag, NL; 2011 Exposed – Voyeurism, Surveillance and the Camera, Tate Modern, London, UK;  2010 Künstler der Galerie, Galerie Susanne Zander, Cologne, DE; 2008 Miroslav Tichý & Julia Margaret, Magasin 3 Stockholm Konsthall, Stockholm, SE; 2006 Soleil Noir, Salzburger Kunstverein, Salzburg, AT; 2006 Outsider Photography, Cologne Fine Arts, Cologne, DE; 2006 Artists for Tichý – Tichý for Artists, Museum Moderner Kunst, Stiftung Wörlen, Passau, DE; 2006 5th International Ink Biennial, Shenzhen, CN; 2006 Artists for Tichý – Tichý for Artists, East Bohemian Museum, Pardubice, CZ; 2006 Déjà vue, Artibus Foundation, Ekenas, FI; 2005 Winner of the Discovery Award, Arles, FR; 2005 Arnulf Rainer and His Collection of Art Brut, La maison rouge, Paris, FR; 2004 Bienal Internacionál de Arte Contemporaneo de Sevilla, curated by Harald Szeemann, Fundación Bienal Internacional de Arte Contemporáneo de Sevilla - BIACS, Sevilla, ES; 1999 Galerie Susanne Zander, Cologne, DE; 1997 Galerie Susanne Zander, Cologne, DE; 1990 Von einer Welt zur Andern – Kunst von Außenseitern im Dialog, DuMont Kunsthalle, Cologne, DE.